The course covers physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of soil. Types of soils with emphasis on clay and interaction with water. Site investigation-objectives methods of sampling field tests, soil profiles and laboratory identification tests. Shear strength and stresses in soil should be considered these should includes; Mohrs stress circle, Mohrs-Coulomb theory of failure. Shear test-vane tests, shear box test, traixial, shear strength of saturated clay and compacted unsaturated clays.